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Mobile App Testing FAQ

Virtual Devices

What type of keyboard and buttons do the Android Emulators have?

Android Emulators have software buttons and a hardware keyboard. In a regular Android Emulator the device buttons are software buttons displayed on the right size of the emulator. For the Android Emulators with different skins (e.g Latest Google Pixels, latest Samsung Galaxy devices) the device buttons are also software buttons that are overplayed on top of the skin. For instance, if you hover the mouse around the edges of any of our Android Emulators with a specified skin, a hover icon will appear and you should be able to find whatever buttons actually exist on the device that the skinned emulator is trying to emulate (e.g power button along the top, volume buttons along the edge, back/home buttons right below the screen, etc).

Can I run Android Emulator tests using Espresso instead of Appium?

Yes - see Espresso and XCUITest Testing for Virtual Devices.

What mobile web browsers can I automate in Android Emulators?

Currently the only browser that can be automated in our Android Emulators is the stock browser (i.e., Chrome).

Real Devices


How real are your Real Devices?

Our devices are real, physical devices. They are standard, commercially available devices and not modified or rooted. We provide smooth streaming and fast interactions from the devices through Websockets and WebRTC protocols.

What are the top device lists by country, and how reliable are they?

The top lists indicate the ten most common devices by country. We gather information from an external provider who analyses mobile web traffic data from thousands of websites worldwide. The lists are generally reliable, but by using the "web traffic" metric for device distribution numbers, high-end devices and tablets might be overrepresented. Older and low-cost devices often have a smaller screen and a poorer performance, and are less used for surfing the web than top devices. This is why the "web-traffic" metric might underrepresent the overall distribution of these devices.

The devices in your top list do not coincide with top devices in my user base. Why?

When you compare the most popular devices of your users with our top lists you probably will see differences. A reason for this might be that our lists represent all mobile users, where your users may differ in certain aspects from the overall population of mobile users. For example, a food recipe app probably attracts a different user group than an outdoor navigation app, and these user groups probably also prefer different device models.

How long does it take Sauce to provide testing support on the latest and greatest devices and operating systems?

We strive to support the latest releases within 48 hours to ensure your website and apps work flawlessly across all platforms.

Is it possible to turn off the WiFi on Real Devices with SIM card included?

Yes. To test in offline mode with Real Devices, see our Offline Mode Guide.

Is it possible to test the camera behavior using your mobile devices?

Yes. See Camera Image Injection.

Is it possible to test push notifications?

  • Android Real Devices - Yes. It works automatically with no action required.
  • iOS Real Devices - Yes. Prior to testing, you'll need to disable resigning; this enables notifications testing. Disabling resigning is a feature available for private devices only. To disable resigning, go to Live > Mobile App > Locate your iOS mobile app from your list of uploaded app > Click Settings > Toggle Instrumentation so that it says Disabled. You'll need to start keeping track of the iOS device UDIDs (Unique Device Identifier) by maintaining them in your own Apple Developer profile used at app build time.
  • Android Emulators - Not supported.
  • iOS simulators - Yes, when using the latest Appium version.

Is there a maximum time I can use a real device for either manual or automated testing, provided I actually do interact with the device?

For real devices on the public cloud, the limit is 6 hours for Appium tests and 1 hour for Espresso and XCUITest; the same applies to private cloud devices. The limits for public cloud devices ensure that there are enough devices available for you, whereas the limits for private cloud devices ensure the longevity of your devices.

What is the difference between the devices available with a free trial and a subscription?

For free trial accounts, the available devices are denoted with a green Trial flag. If you are subscribed, you have access to a pool of over 300 device models with additional supported OS/version configurations.

For example, with a subscription, you can test iPhone 12 devices with any of these iOS configurations:

  • iPhone 12 - iOS 15
  • iPhone 12 - iOS 16
  • iPhone 12 - iOS 16.1

Can I upload files to or download files from a real device?

Yes, by using virtual USB, but only on private Android devices. Currently, iOS does not have an option to upload or download files from real devices. See Virtual USB Testing on Real Mobile Devices for more information.

I'm encountering errors when executing ADB shell commands. What could be the issue?

If you're facing challenges with ADB shell commands during your automated Appium tests, ensure that you are using the mobile: shell script correctly.

We maintain an allowlist of commands that can be executed within our Real Device Cloud. Please refer to the list of allowed commands to ensure compatibility:

  • am start
  • am force-stop
  • pm clear
  • input
  • (ls|cp|mkdir|echo|grep|cut|pwd|dumpsys)
  • getprop
  • am compat enable
  • cmd connectivity airplane-mode (enable|disable)
  • settings put global (animator_duration_scale|transition_animation_scale|window_animation_scale) <value>
  • setprop <value>
  • setprop (log.tag.FA|log.tag.FA-SVC) (ERROR|WARN|INFO|DEBUG|VERBOSE)

If the command you require is not listed, you can submit a request through this form or reach out to your Customer Success Manager or Sauce Labs Support for assistance.


Is my app safe in the Real Device Cloud?

Our Real Device Cloud servers are located in the Europe and US at certified data centers. The communication is SSL secured. We try to ensure as much safety as a cloud service can provide. The Real Device Cloud will never abuse your data, and we respect your data privacy at all times.

For very high security requirements, we also provide a private cloud solution.

Can other users access my data?

It is of great importance for us to make sure that no other user can have access to your data. This is why we clean up the devices after each testing session. In detail, we:

  • Uninstall all user apps
  • Delete browser data
  • Clear the SD card
  • Clear all accounts whenever allowed by the OS (e.g., Google Play, Twitter, etc.)
  • Finally, we automatically check if the clean-up was successful and block the device for other users if we detect that user data has not been removed properly.

Do you support SSO (Single Sign-On)?

Yes. We support OAuth login via Google and GitHub.

Are your devices jailbroken?

No. We do not offer jailbroken or rooted devices.

Automated Testing

Can I use the REST API to launch automated tests using Appium, Robotium, and Espresso?

You can do that for Robotium and Espresso, but not for Appium. Tests that rely on Appium must be initiated by local test runners.

Can I use CircleCI to initiate test cases to run on many devices?

Yes. You’ll want to use Maven or Gradle. We also have our own Espresso Runner here: (note the Gradle plugin has been deprecated).

Can I run native app tests with XCUITest test automation?

Yes, on iOS 13 and above.

How do I upload an iOS app?

You'll need to export your app for the right device type:

You can upload your .app or .ipa through our REST API, as described in Uploading Your App to Real Device Storage with the REST API.

Can I upload multiple .apk or .aab files for testing?

Yes. You can upload more than one .apk or .aab using the “dependency app” functionality.

Can I choose different browsers on a device?

Yes, but only for manual testing. If the browser is not present on the device, you will need to manually install it. For automated testing, we support the Android device's default browser and Chrome Browser and Safari on iOS.

Do I have to worry about provisioning profiles, certificates and UDIDs when uploading an app?

No. On iOS, we re-sign with our own certificate. On Android, there are no extra complications with certificates.

If I run a test on the public real device cloud, can I run it over ssh or a VPN?

No. Private and public cloud accounts have the option to use our Sauce Connect Proxy solution for ensuring a secure connection to your own environment and internal endpoints, see more here.. Using a VPN app in the device is not supported, nor guaranteed to work.

Sauce Connect is supported for both private and public clouds.

Should anything be present on the device from an earlier test?

No. If there is, our automated cleaning process didn’t work as intended. If this happens, let us know so our Operations team can reset the device and see what went wrong with the cleaning process.

My app is only available within our internal network. Can I use real devices for my testing?

You can add an exception for the Real Device Cloud to your network's allowlist for the appropriate domains as described in System and Network Requirements for Sauce Connect Proxy.

I see the error Not Yet Implemented Exception when scrolling in an Appium web test on Android. Why?

Appium cannot scroll in the "web" context, only in the native app context. The test shows this error instead.

Does your service provide performance test tools?


Do you support audio capture and streaming?

Audio capture and streaming are supported on real devices, see more here.

Can I use Bluetooth on a device?

No. We do not support Bluetooth connections between devices in our Real Device Cloud.

What should the frame rate be on newer Android/iOS devices?

20 to 30 FPS.

Can I trigger the disconnect/reconnect of a charging cable for a device?


Do you have any UI inspection tool built into your application like UI Automator viewer?

Yes, check out our integrated Appium Inspector solution here.

Can I change the orientation of the device screen during a test?

Yes. For automated tests this can be done with a command (in Java, it would be: driver.setOrientation(orientation)). For manual tests, click Rotate Device.

Do you support code coverage reports by JaCoCo?


Can I change the geolocation of a device?

Yes. In Java, it can be done with the driver.setLocation(long, lat) command.

Can I change the device’s time and date?

No, the device's time and date cannot be changed.

Can I take screenshots during Espresso tests with the Real Device Cloud?

Yes, see Espresso Screenshot Capture.

Can I test MO (Mobile Originated) SMS text messages?

Yes, only on private devices that have SIM cards and are connected to the Carrier Network.

Can I access Mobile Data? Not just WiFi, but 4G and 5G networks?

Yes, only on private devices that have SIM/eSIM cards and are connected to the Carrier Network. Reach out to our support team regarding this!

**What type of carriers can I test my SIM cards/eSIM cards with? **

We support T-Mobile in US-West and US-East, Verizon in US-East, and Vodafone in the EU.

Live Testing

If I start a manual session and don’t do anything in it for a long time, will the session remain open indefinitely?

No. Sessions are closed after 15 minutes of inactivity.

Does an active manual test show up in the "Current Activity" field?

No, because we don’t create reports for manual tests. We only do that for automated tests.

I closed the tab on a manual test by mistake. Can I go back to it?

No. We have plans to make that possible in the future.

My manual test errors with App installation failed : INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE

This could mean something went wrong in our infrastructure. Let us know and we’ll contact our operations team.

I get a popup asking whether to allow my app to use the device location in automated tests, but not manual tests. Why?

The default behavior for manual tests is to grant all permissions to apps to prevent those popups.

Test Queuing and Concurrency

What are concurrent test runs?

The number of concurrent test sessions in your plan tells you:

  • On how many devices your test scripts can be executed at the same time, in the case of automated testing
  • How many devices you can remote control at the same time, in the case of manual testing.

If I run a test and all the devices of the selected model are "Unavailable," how long will the test be queued?

15 minutes by default. You can increase it up to 30 minutes using a timeout capability. See Test Configuration Options.

You can also shorten it, but putting it to less than two minutes is probably a bad idea. At less than two minutes, you may see tests not starting because the session may not have time to be initialized.

If I have a concurrency of five and I start 10 tests, will the Real Device Cloud queue five of the tests to run later?

Yes. The five other tests will try to get the requested devices for the next 15 minutes. That’s the default time -- it can be increased to 30 minutes through a timeout command. See Test Configuration Options.

Pricing Plans and Billing

Can I upgrade and downgrade plans at any time?

You can upgrade your plan at any time and get access to all its features immediately. Charges will also apply immediately. If you downgrade, your new plan starts from the next billing cycle.

Are all plans auto-renewed?

Yes, all Real Device Cloud plans - monthly and annual - are auto-renewal subscriptions. To cancel your subscription you have to actively downgrade to the "free" plan. This will not delete your Real Device Cloud account and you can re-subscribe to a paid plan at any time.

Which payment methods do you accept?

We accept credit card payments (Visa, MasterCard, Maestro). When you have subscribed to a monthly plan, your credit card will be charged monthly. When you've subscribed to an annual plan, the full amount for 12 months will be charged once at the beginning of the billing cycle. For annual plans we also accept PayPal or direct invoicing. Please contact our sales team for further information:

Will I receive an invoice?

Yes, you will receive an invoice for every payment via email. You also can access your billing history from your account settings.

Free-Trial Accounts

Are the device settings, Google Play Store, and camera all password-protected on all free devices?

Yes. You'll need to upgrade to a paid plan to gain access to devices that are not password-protected.

If your app uses the Google Play store, you would need to upgrade to a Real Device Cloud plan.

Note that the free-trial devices will remain "free," even if you have a paid account. These will still be accessible to you, but there will also be other devices available that are not password protected.

Why does a lock/PIN screen appear during my test?

To make sure the availability stays high, we need to password-protect certain functionality on our free devices. This usually includes the Settings and the Play Store. The password protection is not in place on our premium devices.

Is there a limit to how many tests I can run with a free-trial account? Can I run tests in parallel?

You can run as many tests as you wish on your trial account, but you will only be able to run one test at a time. Also, no manual test is allowed to run for more than ten minutes.

New iOS and Android Release:

What is new on iOS17 devices?

You can run automated Appium 2.0 and Live Tests against any of our iOS17 devices! You can find a detailed list of all the changes introduced that might impact your application or testing here. The following features are limited or not available for a short period of time on iOS17 devices:

  • Accessing and changing Location services
  • Changing locale.
  • Virtual USB